DELHI, (Smart Cities News): In India, the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MOHUA) and the government is implementing National Smart Cities Mission, an urban renewal program to develop smart cities across the nation, making them citizen-friendly and sustainable for all of us. This mission is being implemented in more than 100 cities in India, and data is playing a pivotal role in making the plans and strategies for these smart cities. Building on the National Smart Cities Mission (NSMC), GIZ supports MOHUA in organizing a global data challenge with National Institute of Urban Affairs as an implementation partner for managing the Smart Move Innovative Urban Mobility Challenge, an international urban mobility challenge to address the mobility challenges faced by Indian cities. The data challenge is outlined considering the Government of India’s efforts to become Aatma Nirbhar Bharat (self-reliant) and help cities to transform into a digital empowered society. The main objective of the challenge is to develop solutions for enhancing innovation in urban mobility by taking the current situation as an opportunity to improve the urban mobility system and help public transport and freight recovery from the ongoing COVID-19 crisis using big data. The challenge will help to improve the accessibility and mobility of people, goods and services by unlocking the potential of urban mobility datasets. Under the challenge, we are looking for an innovative solution in the urban mobility sector to help cities offer safe, sustainable, efficient and intelligent urban transport systems.
Another big challenge facing by cities is to delivering the mobility to all demographics and sections of society. By 2050, 2.1 billion people worldwide, around 21% of the global population, will be aged more than 60 years. As the population ages, the percentage of drivers increases. While there are no special traffic rules for older drivers in many countries, their reduced physical abilities require them to be especially careful. The higher vulnerability of older drivers is due to the reduced physical capabilities of older drivers that means diminished the hearing, slower reaction time and less day-to-day experience on the roads. To ensure the safety, well-being, and quality of life of the population, cities must be aware of the potential risks and prepare for future sustainability. Lets take an example, In Foreign Country, the government gives subsides to older people’s transport, so they pay HK$2 (US$0.2) for most trips on public transit. It encourages the elderly to travel safely and engage more actively with their family, friends and the wider community.
According to the United Nations, more and more people move to the cities, two-thirds of the world’s population will be living in urban environment by 2050 —rural communities’ risk being under supplied with mobility services and transportation infrastructure. Viable mobility is vital for rural community’s health, education and economic prospects. In rural Japan, where this issue is particularly prevalent, some communities are implementing the possible solutions.
Delivering comprehensive urban mobility is expensive. Many experience labor shortages due to diminishing work forces caused by ageing populations. Left unaddressed, strains placed on urban mobility systems will exacerbate social, economic and environmental impact.
Mobility-as-a Service (MASS)
The past decade has seen the introduction of new technologies that are revolutionizing the service economy. Ubiquitous internet connectivity, the proliferation of sensors and autonomous technology, the sharing economy and widespread electrification are trends that are disrupting conventional modes of transport. Autonomous electric vehicles now challenge gasoline-felled motorcars, and in many cities around the world, traditional taxi services have been replaced by ride-hailing applications.
The way people perceive mobility is also rapidly changing. Owning an expensive and high-performance automobile is no longer necessarily viewed as a status symbol. People’s value on mobility is shifting towards wallet-friendliness, environmental consciousness, easing congestion, healthy living, and comfortably. It diversified the environment, sharing, accepting and collaborating is the key to solving issues and working towards a more fulfilling, happier society.
This wave of transformation has helped give rise to “Mobility-as-a-Service”. This concept that emerged in the past years, MaaS integrates end-to-end trip planning, booking, electronic ticketing and payment services across all modes of transportation within cities and in real-time. Rather than locating and paying for each mode of transport individually, MaaS platforms will enable the users to plan and book door to door trips using a single application.
Transportation should not just be convenient, and it bought to be enjoyable and meet the needs and lifestyles of users. Transport must be inclusive, cater to the individual preferences, be on-demand, fast, and lead to healthier lifestyles. It must also meet the growing need for cleaner modes of transport, eradicate accidents, and be cost-effective for users and service providers.
THE 2030 MOBILITY CHALLENGE
By 2030, most of the world’s population will be concentrated in cities. Assuming this trend continues, by 2050, more than 80% of the world’s population will live in an urban environment. Cities already focus the majority of the economic activities and output. At the same time, they
also consume most of the world’s resources and energy supplies. Consequently, they risk generating an unprecedented amount of urban traffic, from heavy freight to personal vehicles. Europe is advanced in terms of urbanization. In today’s scenario more than two-thirds of its population lives in urban areas, which increase day to day. Cities are where the opportunities and threats to sustainable development come together. Urban areas are characterized by density: the people, activities, interactions and economic, social and cultural functions. Cities are places of innovation, drivers of our economy and where wealth and jobs are created. Urbanization requires the mobility solutions that are coherent with land use policy. Efficient transport and mobility, based on a balanced mix of public and private transport and dependent on the characteristics of each city, is and will continue to be the backbone of cities’ growth and competitiveness. Trucks and vans deliver virtually all goods transported into cities, and cars and buses are responsible for an essential part of urban journeys. The challenges of urbanization open up new opportunities for innovative technologies and businesses to bring growth and prosperity.
Urbanization necessitates intelligent new transportation concepts. The European automobile industry is committed to continuing to shape future urban mobility and transport sustainably.
Sustainability has three pillars, the economy, society and the environment. Whereas environmental issues are very high on urban mobility agendas, the importance of transport to urban social and economic structures is often neglected in discussions. All three aspects of urban sustainability must be treated equally and cannot be overlooked when the public funding is scarce. The future will bring a transportation landscape in which cars, buses, pedestrians, bicycles, freight and rail will be woven into a connected network, saving time and resources, producing lower emissions and congestion, and promoting efficient land use and improved safety.
The European automobile industry’s investments in innovation keep it ahead of global competition. The initiative will continue to maintain its leadership in the sustainable low carbon propulsion, integrated vehicle safety and vehicle connectivity. Moreover,
Europe’s auto manufacturers are dedicated to ensuring affordability for consumers and transport operators.
Preserving technological neutrality is key to supporting innovation. Knowing that technological developments are by definition not wholly predictable, European automobile manufacturers believe that none of the technology options should be discarded and that no ‘winners’ should be prematurely selected. Technological progress made by using one technology sometimes reduces the progress made in another field. This reduces the potential for overall technological advancement. In the long run. European automobile manufacturers have always promoted an integrated approach to improving urban road safety, the environment and economic performance rather than focusing on vehicle technology alone. Some of the lowest-cost opportunities for the emission reductions in transport have not been exploited so far. Better use of CO2-based taxation for vehicles, support for Eco-driving, better road infrastructure, fostering the introduction of new low rolling resistance lyres, and freight logistics optimization is the examples. As far as safety is concerned, continuous improvements to the protection of vehicles have resulted in an impressive decline in road casualties.
Further reduction, however, requires even safer vehicles and safer urban infrastructure, improved driver skills and behaviour, better enforcement of existing traffic legislation, and more significant interaction and networking between all of these factors.
New technologies’ environmental and safety benefits will increase the new vehicles progressively replace old ones on the streets. European automobile manufacturers stress that the renewal of the current vehicle fleet will significantly reduce emission levels and safety than the prescription of the new technology. Urban infrastructure design is sometimes leading to antagonism between motor vehicles and other road users. There is no doubt that better engineering can improve urban road users’ conditions by making urban infrastructure safer, more convenient and more complete. Connected vehicles, intelligent transport systems (ITS) and infrastructure can positively respond to the mobility challenges faced by cities: accessibility, congestion, energy efficiency, emissions and safety. However, connected solutions require that supporting infrastructure is built and that the connected vehicle-related services are delivered. Cities should become part of this ‘Ecosystem of new connected vehicles.’
Many urban mobility measures exist to balance supply and demand – and they are implemented worldwide. Their cost and effectiveness depend on a case-by-case basis. In many instances, simple solutions can solve a problem without resorting to complicated and expensive measures. Somebody should try these solutions first before the more complex steps are invoked. Cities need high-quality and effective public transport systems that can respond to the increased mobility of businesses and citizens. These transport systems need to be integrated, combining buses, cars, metros, tramways and trains. Further support for pilot projects on integrating private and public transport should be promoted. New concepts need to be developed that provide flexibility, quality, efficiency and affordability.
Passenger journeys, logistics and freight delivery are becoming increasingly complex in the postindustrial city, and the customer demands increase and price constraints bite more deeply. Local authorities have sought to respond to these changes with an array of mainly harmonized
schemes to restrict access. It was increasingly creating difficulties for citizens as well as for local and international business. Measures should be reassessed to ensure maximum harmonization, simplicity, stability, integration and acceptability. They have to be based on objective criteria, be fair and justified. In line with the principle of technological neutrality, compliance with existing emission standards should be the only criteria for Low Emission Zones (LEZs).
The delivery and collection of goods in urban areas, especially in old city centers, significantly impact the economic power, quality of life, accessibility, and attractiveness of cities. Changes in consumer demands result in changes in the types of goods demanded, their distribution and the organization of deliveries. Improved compliance with parking rules, adapted infrastructure and expanded delivery time slots contributes the better urban freight distribution. New solutions for urban freight distribution should be looked at.
The 2030 challenge: Solutions for the city of the future
Across Europe, there are significant differences in the way cities are built to run and how goods and inhabitants move. It is vital to understand more about these differences to make the right choices for building sustainable cities. Every city is unique, but all share similar traits and face the same challenges. This paper presents common scenarios on how mobility in cities could evolve and become more efficient in the future.
SUSTAINABLE URBAN MOBILITY IN 2030
We have identified several ways city leaders can help make the urbanization process for more sustainable regarding mobility. An integrated approach to mobility challenges, based on technology neutrality and an intelligent network of vehicles and infrastructure, together with efficient public transport, can make a big difference. Wider use of new logistics concepts and shared mobility solutions can also make a significant contribution to the sustainable mobility, as can the use of inter modal and multi-modal mobility services as a part of day-to-day life. An integrated transport system enables people to move quickly from one point to another and addresses the need for a suitable first and last-mile solutions. As users switch transport modes, they select the most appropriate technology for every step they take. Individual transportation remains an attractive solution because of the flexibility it offers. In 2030, the best solutions for enabling urban inhabitants to reach their destination safely and efficiently will be many and varied. Vehicles and traffic infrastructure will be part of an intelligent network. Vehicles and infrastructure simply have more information at their disposal to help drivers reach their destination safely and efficiently. Automatic driving will be an integral part of urban mobility in 2030. Technology will have improved the traffic flow and reduced chaos so that citizens are safer and less stressed. More people will share their vehicles: they are transmitted more efficiently throughout the day, and scarce parking space is used more effectively. More people give lifts: to the cutting-edge information technology and mobile devices bring drivers and passengers in touch with one another quickly and easily. Increased capacity levels and the resulting decrease in the number of vehicles on the road have helped improve traffic flow, particularly during peak travel times. Now the New logistics concepts have created synergies between personal and commercial transport solutions: there are no wasted journeys. Traffic flows and mobility solutions come together at urban hubs – transfer stations for various modes of transport – and are linked up with other urban services, helping to relieve strain on the city’s traffic levels. Any purchased goods can be put in storage to be picked up with the car at the later point, or citizens can have them delivered to their doorstep thanks to an intelligent and environmentally-friendly urban logistics service.
Inter-modal and multi-modal mobility services are a part of day-to-day life. Instead of being fixated on a particular mode of transport, citizens use the most suitable service for each specific situation or journey. The 2030 Urban Mobility Challenge by various contributions in May 2016.
Every member of the traffic flow has access to up-to-date and reliable information at all times. Citizens have been given the right tools for helping to make the right decision when it comes to travel.
In 2030, the urban transport system provides increased mobility for people and goods. As a result, it improves the quality of life of city dwellers. Access to new technologies through various mobility solutions, particularly individual transport, is crucial in delivering this ambitious contribution. Efficient urban mobility allows the people and goods to move using fast, reliable and affordable transport solutions. For individual mobility, the availability of various technologies is the decisive factor in the mobility system’s performance. Goods transportation, however, requires heavier vehicles and very light commercial vehicles that provide door-to-door delivery services. A wide array of technological solutions is offered by mobility service providers in 2030. The technical choices for these transportation modes, particularly their energy source, are determined by their use and the user’s priority. Smartphones, means a accessing such mobility services, are inextricably linked to this change. Co-modality is widely taken up by citizens, who switch between transport modes depending on their needs: effectiveness (short travel time), affordability (lower cost of travelling), convenience (accessibility and comfort), availability, etc.
In 2030, public transport remains the backbone of an urban mobility portfolio in all situations where a sufficient level of demand exists and justifies the use of high-capacity vehicles (from the minibus to train). To foster the multi-modal behavior, public transport apps integrating all local mobility offers (including payment, routing, timetables, conditions to pass from a private mode to public transport, etc.) have convinced locals and visitors of their easy use. However, privately owned vehicles are still a crucial part of individuals’ mobility and remain essential for those commuting in sparsely populated and rural areas. Citizens behave in a multi-modal way, especially in the dense city centers with good public transport. However, for specific requirements, there is no alternative available. Shared mobility concepts like car-sharing, when available, close this gap and offer on-demand mobility whenever desired. Local authorities have encouraged shared the mobility schemes and adopted policies consistent with this. Parking management policies for all types of vehicles (cars, trucks, buses, bikes and motorcycles) have been introduced, and traffic calming measures to make the best use of streets.
MAIN DRIVERS OF THIS PROJECT
Now the question is, how can we make sure that transport supply fulfills its demand by 2030? Among the many factors, there are two that deserve particular attention: an integrated approach and connectivity.
Integrated approach for sustainable cities
The involvement of all stakeholders has proved by 2030 to be crucial to maximizing emission reductions, distributing the regulatory burden more equally, and avoiding discrimination. Opportunities to reduce emissions are promoted widely – such as better use of CO2-based taxation for
the vehicles and vehicle labelling, support for Eco-driving and improving consumer behavior, better road infrastructure, the introduction of new low rolling resistance lyres and the optimization of freight logistics, road traffic management through intelligent transport systems (ITS), fleet renewal, lower carbon fuels, support for the market uptake of alternative power trains, appropriate refueling and recharging the infrastructure for alternative fuel vehicles and the diversification of energy sources
used in transport to meet climate goals.
Vehicle manufacturers continue to provide a wide range of technical solutions, from alternative power trains to highly efficient combustion engines powered by the conventional or alternative fuels. Alternative fuels represent one of the essential parts for the sustainable mobility.
Automakers support widely available, diverse range of low carbon and renewable energy sources and technology that include bio fuels, CNG (Compressed Natural Gas), LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas), clean diesel, electricity and the hydrogen (e.g., fuel cell vehicles). Electrification of the mobility and transport system is an essential part of the alternative fuel mobility mix. However, the freedom for consumers to select the technology they prefer has been guaranteed.
Technology enables considerably lower CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions and lower polluting emissions, improving the air quality. Thanks to continuous vehicle fleet renewal policies, emission levels have been reduced, and safety has also been enhanced in the process. Road infrastructure is adapted to the use of vehicles carrying the latest technologies within the urban environments.
A comprehensive approach to road safety has proved to be the most efficient and sustainable way to achieve positive results by 2030. Besides even safer vehicles, safer urban infrastructure and improved driver skills and behavior, better enforcement of existing legislation, and the interaction and networking between all of these factors have resulted in the excellent road safety records in cities. Better engineering has improved urban road users’ conditions by making infrastructure safer, more convenient, and complete. Multiple function lanes are now generalized, allowing different activities at different times of the day (bus lanes, general traffic lanes, freight lines, loading/unloading areas for commercial vehicles or residents’ parking). Light signals indicate to other vehicles if a priority vehicle is using the express lane. This public sector plays an active role in supporting innovation. It drives the development of new technologies through incentives and public procurement. Technology neutral urban policies have enabled more efficient mobility solutions. New technical fixes are not assessed based on technology for efficiency.
Besides the importance of an integrated approach, citizens now have access to sophisticated, real-time, multi-modal cloud and mobile-based the traffic management systems that can help them better meet their needs across all types of transport. Manufacturers have developed automated vehicles that improve safety, efficiency and sustainability.
In 2030, vehicles communicate with each other, enabling communication between vehicles and infrastructure and allowing vehicle occupants to share with their environment. Intelligent networking of cars, both with each other and with infrastructure, has made optimized the traffic
flow management a reality; preventing traffic jams, managing parking opportunities and traffic safety, thereby saving resources and time. Networked traffic systems optimize the flow of traffic and reduce emissions levels in cities. People and goods arrive at their destinations faster and with the lower impact on the environment. Intelligent traffic systems make tailor-made, inter modal mobility solutions possible. Networked vehicles are aware of traffic light phases and building sites. They are aware of the optimum route and can, when necessary, recommend other means of transport as alternatives. Intelligent traffic management systems, such as vehicle routing and tracking and traffic flow optimization through the introduction of traffic light synchronization, are a reality. By providing the relevant infrastructure that enables vehicle-to-infrastructure communication, dynamic routing has by 2030 been established, helping traffic flows. Vehicles are digital: they receive data from a variety of channels and share some approved data with all over the surroundings. The significance of telematics and its usefulness for managing logistics has also grown consistently. Vehicles have evolved into mobile information nodes, and traffic has undergone a digital revolution. In 2030, all modes of transport and all road users and the infrastructure are interconnected. The potential that digitization offers for efficiency is fully exploited and the mobility in cities flows freely and is less expensive. Many challenges have been successfully faced before reaching this situation. It’s setting up reliable data connections, developing standards, collecting data, aligning life cycles of vehicles and infrastructures, and fostering strong cooperation between policymakers, industry and society. In conclusion, in 2030, connectivity has revolutionized both cars and the entire transport system. Digital networking combines various transport, infrastructure, freight transport and individual mobility requirements into a fully synchronized system. We support the cooperation of various industries and business sectors, including the automobile industry, this revolution has been possible with policymakers’ support.
The impact of the integrated approach and innovation in the field of connectivity has been meaningful. Three areas with significant impact are a new business and mobility models, better public transport, and optimized the urban freight delivery and logistics.
New business and mobility models
Like other smart devices in 2030, the vehicle has become an integrated component in the internet of things, collecting and managing information from drivers, occupants, goods, other cars– thereby giving it an important place in the global, integrated and connected multi-modal mobility system. Connected mobility makes it possible to provide citizens, companies and transport operators with new services such as:
Door-to-door mobility services: integrated multi-modal transport systems based on the new vehicle and infrastructure concepts and new integrated travel information systems accessible for all users.
Safety Tools: beyond the first Alec step, C2X communication systems and technologies enable new efficient safety services, automating some functions such as the road hazard warning and red-light violation warning. Navigation: and location services: C2X communication systems and technologies enable new, valuable, efficient services gathering actual-time road information and sharing it widely. Moreover, they include intelligent parking tools connecting people who have a parking space and those who need one, supported with the simple non-cash payment mechanisms;
Information Sharing: web-based, video chatting with friends, watching TV and doing office work during commuting are some of the new functions enabled by connected and autonomous driving vehicles;
New Insurance Services: Mobility on demand and the sharing economy require new insurance services adapted to unique needs. The tariffs are the transparent, and the premiums are adaptable;
Payment Services and Platform: The emergence of integrated mobility services is supported by intelligent payment services and platforms giving access to related services;
Remote Monitoring and Intervention: Remote monitoring and intervention are now spread out, reducing the costs and simplify maintenance. When components are due for inspection or change, vehicles advise the dealer and the owner and suggest a local solution.
Concerning data management, automobile manufacturers have total respect for transparency, customer choice, data protection, data security, and privacy protection – both for the vehicles’ process data or user-introduced data. New business models are in 2030 a reality thanks to
a good understanding by cities and industry of new market requirements, new distribution channels, the convergence of different development life cycles and a collaborative approach for their co-development and the implementation.
Better public transport system
The impact of an integrated approach and the connectivity revolution on the public transport systems has been significant. In 2030, public and private transportation – covering both passengers and goods – belong to a
the single connected network that increases efficiency avoids congestion, saves time and resources, lowers emissions, and improves safety. Cities no longer face social, physical, and time-related barriers but are integrated and based on free movement, contributing to regions, cities, and people. An excellent public transport system has increased the possibility for the industry to recruit students, researchers, and other competent employees worldwide and has strengthened commerce. Efficient public transport systems have eased the transport pressure on city centers and made space available for the benefit and pleasure of citizens and society. The new generation of public transport has no local emissions and is quiet. It can be used in a completely the new fashion, bringing it closer to the user. The public transport system is no longer a collection of separate systems. Still, it is now an integrated and seamless system with one user interface, despite the number of suppliers and transport means. The traveler only needs to select the destination and time, and an intelligent transport system chooses the best solution based on the traveler’s needs and preferences. The technique combines different means of transport smoothly, such as bus, car and bicycle, through interoperable ticketing and multi-modal information.
Autonomous and semi-autonomous buses ensure urban transport is even more efficient by, for instance, increasing loading factors. This has allowed vehicles and vehicle combinations of different sizes to find customers whenever required, instead of fixed-to-fixed routes. This contributes to a new and flexible commuting corridor. Intelligent transport systems make full synchronization possible. This is a significant enabler for connecting different parts of a city in an efficient and customer-oriented public transport network. Public transport users are demanding customers who insist upon the high-quality and user-friendly services that provide fast connections, on-demand available, accessible and affordable.
Safety and security are together with the minimal environmental harness, additional requirements from the users. Sources of financing are not only public but companies and users also provide them. Costs and prices are transparent and the last change depending on the services offered.
Freight delivery and logistics
Freight delivery and logistics have benefited from the systematic implementation of an integrated approach and more excellent connectivity.
In the year 2030, the delivery and the collection of goods and services in urban areas continue to significantly impact the economic power, quality of life, accessibility, and attractiveness of the nation. We have to adapted transport infrastructure, urban freight delivery and logistics have to new consumer demands by implementing innovative distribution systems. Urban traffic flows improved the following stable and harmonized rules. Shippers use tailor-made urban logistics solutions and have access to cheap storage capacity. They provide the daily combined deliveries and parking or loading/unloading facilities in cities. Freight carriers know and are fully aware of any possible traffic restriction policies since they are all based on harmonized guidelines. All shippers have natural-time information systems fitted in their modern, clean and silent fleets. They make full use of the advantages provided by loading units allowed for flexible regulations. Resident’s demand ‘green’ city logistics solutions through less polluting and safer vehicles. They fully respect loading and unloading areas and accept and support activities of goods vehicles away
from peak hours. Policymakers put forward efficient and cost-effective city logistics measures that promote less-polluting and the right-sized urban freight vehicles, ensuring the safety of road users and pedestrians. Vehicle manufacturers have enhanced their vehicles’ safety through active safety systems while reducing the operational costs of cars thanks to incentives that support investments in more efficient vehicles and systems. Facing an expansion of e-commerce activities, new last-mile delivery solutions have been implemented that improves efficiency and reduce the cost of this (expensive) part of the supply chain. Last-mile connected vans have been adapted to enhance consumer service, security and quality of delivery while considering environmental and economic constraints.
URBAN ACCESS RESTRICTIONS
However, one essential prerequisite that allowed for all these achievements is that policymakers have understood the need to consider restrictive measures only when they are perfectly fit with the sustainable urban mobility plans of the city. Successful Access Restriction Schemes (ARS) in 2030 provide easy to access the information on how the scheme works, are clear, transparent, and above all technologically neutral and non-discriminatory. They do not hinder necessary and appropriate infrastructure improvements or provisions. The implementation of such ARS has never disrupted businesses, nor has it increased inequalities between the city and suburban residents. Information about these schemes’ impact is reliable and easy to know. This is particularly true for investment/operating costs (urban economy), environmental effects (acceptable limits for the environment) and for the liability (equity between winners and losers, e.g., residents versus commuters).
In 2030, the EU institutions respect the principle of subsidiarity and refrain from promoting one specific traffic management tool over another, including Low Emission Zones (LEZs). LEZs consist of area licensing or entry permits schemes that are applied to restrict access to particular areas. They constitute one among many other management tools. The Local authorities decide which traffic management tools seem appropriate given the local requirements. The European Commission has in its 2030 guidelines a standard methodology and criteria for those cities that have introduced or are considering LEZs, thus avoiding the European patchwork that would result in transport becoming increasingly expensive because of divergent regulations. LEZs in 2030 are based on vehicle emission types. In the European Union, the Euro standards are the basis on which vehicles are classified according to their environmental performance. The Euro standard is mentioned in the registration documents of all vehicles. This is a non-discriminatory approach that places compliance with existing emissions standards at the forefront. This way, investments made by consumer and operators are safeguarded. Clear and measurable objectives which required when introducing LEZs. Moreover, the substantial social, environmental and economic impacts of every LEZ are systematically assessed by the cities. LEZ schemes are used by municipalities as tools to help them meet European Union air quality legislation embedded in a broader local mobility strategy that takes into account regional, national and the other urban mobility measures and objectives.
Cities are places of innovation, the drivers of our economy and businesses where wealth and jobs are created. At the same time, urban areas are characterized by density, people, activities, interactions and economic, social and cultural functions. On the other hand, cities are that where the opportunities and threats to sustainable development come together. In this context, the three pillars of sustainability are (the economy, the society and the environment) have all to be treated with equal importance. The future will bring a transportation landscape in which private cars, buses, freight, pedestrians, bicycles and rail will be woven into a connected network, saving time and resources, producing lower emissions and promoting efficient land use for improving safety.